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How to Troubleshoot “Cannot Connect to the Docker Daemon” Errors

Docker is one of the leading platforms for building and running software containers. It comes with everything you need to use containers on either a single host or multiple distributed nodes in Swarm mode.

Docker has a daemon-based architecture. The software that’s responsible for creating and starting containers is independent of the CLI process that accepts your commands. This means you’ll see errors in the CLI if you try to run commands without an active daemon connection. In this article, we’ll share some methods for troubleshooting these frustrating messages.

Problem Symptoms

The Docker CLI is reliant on a daemon connection being available. It interacts with the daemon using API calls. When the configured daemon’s inaccessible, docker commands like docker ps, docker run, and docker build will show an error message similar to this one:

$ docker run hello-world:latest
Cannot connect to the Docker daemon at unix:///var/run/docker.sock
Is the docker daemon running?

This reveals that the CLI tried to communicate with the Docker daemon using the /var/run/docker.sock Unix socket. The socket’s not open so the connection failed.

1. Check the Docker Daemon Service Is Running

The Docker daemon is usually managed by a systemd service that automatically starts Docker after your host reboots. You can begin troubleshooting by checking whether this service is running:

$ sudo systemctl status docker
docker.service - Docker Application Container Engine
     Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/docker.service; enabled; vendor preset: enabled)
     Active: inactive (dead)

The service should report Active: active (running) if the daemon is running. The example above shows inactive (dead) which means the daemon has stopped.

Start Docker using the following command:

$ sudo systemctl start docker

Now you should be able to run docker CLI commands successfully.

You might find that Docker stays in the stopped state after you reboot your machine. You can solve this by enabling the service, allowing systemd to start it automatically:

$ sudo systemctl enable docker
$ sudo systemctl daemon-reload

The daemon-reload command instructs systemd to reload its configuration to apply the change.

2. Start the Daemon Manually

You might sometimes use a system that doesn’t have the Docker service installed. You can manually start the Docker daemon using the dockerd command. This usually needs to be run as root.

$ sudo dockerd
INFO[2022-06-29T15:12:49.303428726+01:00] Starting up

Docker will remain accessible for as long as the command’s running. Use Ctrl+C to stop the daemon.

3. Checking the CLI Is Targeting the Correct Daemon

Problems can occur when the CLI is trying to connect to a remote Docker daemon instance. This is usually the cause when the error message shows a TCP address:

$ docker run hello-world:latest
Cannot connect to the Docker daemon at tcp:///0.0.0.0:2375

In this example, the docker CLI is trying to contact the Docker daemon at 0.0.0.0:2375 using TCP, instead of the local Unix Docker socket. This will fail if the Docker daemon’s TCP support is disabled or the specified host is inaccessible on the network.

You can usually resolve this by switching to the correct Docker CLI context for the daemon connection you want to use:

$ docker context use default

You can list all the available contexts and the daemon endpoints they connect to with the context ls command:

$ docker context ls
NAME        DESCRIPTION                               DOCKER ENDPOINT             
default *   Current DOCKER_HOST based configuration   unix:///var/run/docker.sock

The currently selected context is highlighted with an asterisk.

Unexpected values in the DOCKER ENDPOINT column are usually caused by the DOCKER_HOST environment variable being set. You’ll see a warning when this is the case:

$ export DOCKER_HOST=1.2.3.4
$ docker context ls
NAME        DESCRIPTION                               DOCKER ENDPOINT
default *   Current DOCKER_HOST based configuration   tcp://1.2.3.4:2375
Warning: DOCKER_HOST environment variable overrides the active context. To use a context, either set the global --context flag, or unset DOCKER_HOST environment variable.

The presence of the DOCKER_HOST environment variable in your shell overrides the endpoint defined by your selected context. In this example, docker commands will always target the daemon instance at tcp://1.2.3.4:2375.

This problem can be resolved by clearing the DOCKER_HOST variable:

$ export DOCKER_HOST=

Docker will now use the endpoint configured by your active context. This will be the default local Unix socket at /var/run/docker.sock unless you’ve manually set up a custom context.

$ docker context ls
NAME        DESCRIPTION                               DOCKER ENDPOINT             
default *   Current DOCKER_HOST based configuration   unix:///var/run/docker.sock

4. Permissions Issues

Incorrect user permissions on Docker’s socket are another common cause of daemon connection issues. This kind of problem usually shows a slightly different error message:

$ docker run hello-world:latest
Got permission denied while trying to connect to the Docker daemon socket at unix:///var/run/docker.sock

This happens when your Unix user account lacks permission to interact with the socket that exposes the Docker API. Adding yourself to the docker group is the best practice way to resolve this problem:

$ sudo usermod -aG docker $USER

You’ll need to open a new shell window or logout and back in again for this change to take effect. You should now be able to run docker commands without running into permissions problems.

Summary

“Cannot connect to the Docker daemon” appears when the Docker CLI is unable to communicate with a Docker daemon instance using your current configuration. This is often because the Docker daemon service has been stopped or disabled. You could also be trying to connect to a remote Docker host that’s gone offline.

You should now be aware of the possible causes of this problem and the common ways to solve it. Troubleshoot the error by checking your Docker daemon settings, restarting the Docker service, and making sure your user account has permission to interact with Docker’s socket.

This post was originally published on this site

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